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  • Hospitalization can have a profoundly negative impact on a cat’s nutritional status. Hospitalized cats are commonly malnourished due to decreased food intake which can lead to decreased immune system function, decreased ability of the body’s tissues to repair and restore themselves, and abnormal drug metabolism.

  • Nystatin is an antifungal antibiotic. It is used to treat oral or gastrointestinal tract infections. It can also be used to treat Candida skin infections.

  • In North America, obesity is the most common preventable disease in cats. Approximately 25-35% of the general feline population is obese, with 40-45% of cats aged 5-11 years old weighing in higher than normal.

  • Second opinions and referrals often cause great anxiety to cat owners, regardless of whether it is suggested by the veterinarian or considered by the cat owner. Sometimes, despite every effort, things do not go as planned and the attending clinician - the veterinarian treating the pet - suggests it might be beneficial considering a referral for a second opinion with another doctor.

  • Olive leaf extract is obtained from the tree Olea europaea. Olive leaf extract exhibits both anti-viral and antibacterial effects; it may also be effective against various yeast infections (Candida, ringworm.)

  • Omeprazole is used to treat certain conditions in which there is too much acid in the stomach. This medication may be prescribed for treating gastroduodenal ulcers and to prevent gastric erosions caused by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  • Ondansetron may be used to treat or prevent nausea and vomiting that may occur after therapy with anti-cancer medications, radiation or surgery.

  • Oral surgery can be done to remove growths, repair oral defects, fix jaw fractures and in many cases remove teeth to relieve pain.

  • Oral swellings are never normal in a cat’s mouth. Oral swellings occur from diseases such as local trauma, infection, fluid accumulation and cancer.

  • Oral papillomas (warts) are benign tumors of the epithelial lining of the mouth and throat caused by papillomaviruses. The esophagus may also be affected in severe cases.

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