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  • The best way to train your pet is through the proper use of positive reinforcement and rewards while simultaneously avoiding punishment. The goal of training is to "learn" the proper task and/or behavior.

  • Most swellings and tumors of the uterus are not cancerous. The most common swelling in the dog is cystic endometrial hyperplasia (overgrowth of the inner lining of the uterus) due to hormone stimulation.

  • The uvea is the part of the eye made up of the iris, the ciliary body and the choroid. The iris is the pigmented or colored membrane behind the cornea (clear outer surface of the eye).

  • One of our greatest frustrations occurs when a cat develops an infectious disease against which it has been vaccinated. There are five basic reasons for vaccination failure: ineffective vaccine, inherent characteristics of the vaccine, the cat is too young or is unhealthy when vaccinated, interference due to maternal antibodies, and overwhelming exposure.

  • Primary vaccination is essential in order to prevent the return of the once common infectious diseases that caused high levels of fatality in kittens and cats. Recent research indicates that not all vaccines require yearly boosters.

  • A sarcoma is a term for any cancer of mesenchymal tissues. Mesenchymal tissues include connective tissues such as skin and muscles, bone, cartilage, pleura, peritoneum, and blood vessels. Post-vaccination sarcomas usually involve the fibrous connective tissue under the skin and are often fibrosarcomas.

  • Recent advances in veterinary medical science have resulted in an increase in the number and type of vaccines that are available for use in cats, and improvements are continuously being made in their safety and efficacy. Veterinarians routinely recommend certain vaccines for all cats (called 'core' vaccines) whereas others are used more selectively according to circumstances.

  • This is a tumor of the blood vessels of the skin or subcutaneous tissue. Some are benign (hemangioma) but a few are malignant (hemangiosarcoma).

  • These are tumors of the blood vessels of internal organs. Some are benign (hemangioma) but most are malignant (hemangiosarcoma).

  • Vestibular disease in cats is a condition in which a cat suddenly develops incoordination, falling or circling to one side, involuntary darting of the eyes back and forth (nystagmus), a head tilt, and often nausea or vomiting. These clinical signs usually appear suddenly, many times in less than an hour.

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