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  • An ultrasound machine emits and receives high frequency ultrasound waves through a transducer or probe. The probe is placed over the area of interest, directing the sound waves into the body. The ultrasound waves may be transmitted through, reflected from, or absorbed by the tissues that they encounter.

  • Punishment is the application of a stimulus that decreases the chance that a behavior will be repeated. It must coincide with the undesirable behavior, and must be unpleasant enough to deter the cat from repeating that behavior.

  • Urinalysis is a routine test that reports the physical and chemical properties of urine. It is used mainly to assess the health of the kidneys and urinary system, but it can also reveal problems in other organ systems, and is important for diagnosing metabolic disease such as diabetes mellitus.

  • A UTI occurs when bacteria travel up the urethra and into the bladder. Cats with UTIs generally attempt to urinate very frequently whenever they go to the litter box, they may strain to urinate, they may cry out or whine when urinating if it is painful, and there may be blood visible in their urine.

  • Primary Kidney tumors are rare in dogs and cats. When they do occur, they are almost invariably malignant (invasive and spreading) and are called renal carcinoma. These tumors tend to invade the adjacent tissues including the main blood vessel draining the kidney (renal vein).

  • Cortisol is a stress hormone that is excreted from the body in the urine. The amount of cortisol in the urine reflects the average cortisol concentration in the blood at the time that the urine was formed. However, this measurement is affected by the concentration of the urine.

  • The presence of protein in urine is called proteinuria, and it may indicate that the kidneys are not working properly.

  • The urine protein:creatinine ratio is a simple test that measures how much protein is being lost through the kidneys. It is used to determine whether a pet may have serious kidney disease.

  • Ursodiol is a naturally occurring bile acid that is used for treating liver disease in dogs and cats and for the management of cholesterol-containing gallstones.

  • Punishment is the application of a stimulus that decreases the chance that a behavior will be repeated. It must be timed to coincide with the undesirable behavior, and must be unpleasant enough to deter the dog from repeating the behavior.

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