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  • Spironolactone is a diuretic, and is used to increase the amount of urine produced and excreted from the body. It is prescribed when the pet does not respond to other diuretics, or if other diuretics have resulted in low potassium levels.

  • The spleen is an abdominal organ located near the stomach. The spleen contains two types of tissue, red pulp and white pulp.

  • Spondylosis deformans is a condition that affects the vertebral bones of the spine and is characterized by the presence of bony spurs or ‘osteophytes’ along the edges of the bones of the spine. A bony spur may develop in a single spot on the spine; more commonly, there will be multiple bone spurs in several different locations along the spine.

  • St. John's Wort is an herb prepared from the plant Hypericum perforatum. Currently, it is mainly used for treating depression and anxiety disorders in people. This is a fairly modern use of St. John's Wort. Traditionally, the herb was used to ease the pain of peripheral nerve injuries.

  • Stanozolol is an anabolic steroid. It has been prescribed to improve appetite, promote weight gain, and/or to increase muscle strength and vitality in dogs, cats and horses. It may also be used to treat anemia.

  • Stem cells are unspecialized cells that are capable of renewing themselves though cell division. Under certain conditions, they can become a specific tissue or organ cell. In many tissues, stem cells serve as an internal repair system, replacing damaged or dead tissues by reproducing and turning into the needed cells. This type of repair is common in the gut and bone marrow, where stem cells routinely replace damaged tissues.

  • Corticosteroids (commonly referred to as steroids or cortisone) are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal glands. Corticosteroids are involved in a wide range of activities in the body, including the stress response, immune system response and control of inflammation, nutrient metabolism, and maintenance of blood electrolyte levels.

  • Tumors of the epithelial, glandular stomach lining include non-cancerous polyps and some types of chronic (hyperplastic) gastritis. Malignant epithelial tumors (gastric adenocarcinomas) cause progressive illness.

  • Administering supplemental fluids can benefit cats with a variety of medical conditions. Most commonly, home fluid therapy is recommended for cats with kidney disease or chronic renal failure (CRF). If your cat is diagnosed with a condition that will benefit from fluid therapy, your veterinarian can teach you to perform this simple procedure.

  • Sucralfate is used to treat oral, esophageal, gastric and duodenal ulcers. It may also be used to prevent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory induced ulceration. This medication forms a barrier over the ulcer, which protects the ulcer from the acid of the stomach and allows it to heal.

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